Text Books Book 1: Applied Physics by Dr. M. Chandra sekhar & Dr. Appala naidu, V.G.S. Book links Book 2 Introduction to Solid State Physics by C. Kittel, Wiley. Results 9 – 16 Download Applied Physics 2nd edition by Dr. P. Appala Naidu and more books of the same author and others for free. Journal of Applied Physics 68, (); . A. Ganguli, P. Appala Naidu, and D. P. Tewari, International Plasma Physics.

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This energy is also called energy of dissociation. They have high number of free electrons. They posses crystalline structure.


Palaniswamy,Scitech Publications India Pvt. Covalently bonded atoms often produce an electric dipole configuration with hydrogen atom as the positive end of the dipole if bonds arise as a result of electrostatic attraction between atoms, it is known as hydrogen bonding.

Sodium, Copper, Gold, Silver, Aluminum. Examples of metallic solids: Under the bonded condition the potential energy is minimum. OR Secondary bonding arising from the fluctuating dipole aappala of an atom with all occupied electron shell filled is called van der waals bonding.

Normally the states are solid state, liquid state, and gaseous state.


The bonds are made of attractive and repulsive forces. In solids stated as the closer collection of atoms result in bulk materials called solids. Applied Physics by P. People may move up or down the social ladder within their lifetime or from one generation to the next. Feedback Privacy Policy Feedback.

Appled arrangement of electrons in an outer shell is achieved by a process of valence electron sharing rather than electron transfer.

Free water Associated bound water. Hydrogen bonding and van der waals bonding are the examples. Ionic, Covalent and metallic bondings are the examples. Generally matter consists in three states i. Ionic bonding Covalent bonding Metallic bonding Hydrogen bonding Vander walls bonding.

APPLIED PHYSICS. – ppt download

To make this website work, we log user data and share it with processors. The force that holds atoms together is called bonding force 3.

When covalent crystals are doped with certain impurities, they becomes semi-conductors. Solid neon, Solid argon. In mathematics, a sequence is an ordered list of objects or events. The valence electrons from all the atoms belonging to the crystal are free to move throughout the crystal. Different charge distributions in the atoms give rise to different types of bonding. They possess high electrical and thermal conductivity. A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.


Since all the electrons are tightly bound with the ions, ionic solids are good insulators appplied electricity. Metals are opaque to light.

Weak and temporary fluctuating dipole bonds between hydrogen are known as van der Waals bonding and they are nondirectoinal. Electromagnetism is the branch of science concerned with the forces that occur between electrically charged particles. Appalaa hydrogen bonds are directional. Ionic solids are crystalline in nature. Change in the direction of the bond results in the formation of different substance. Since elements of low atomic numbers form such solids, they have low densities.

Applied Physics 2nd edition by Dr. P. Appala Naidu – Download free book

Example of hydrogen bonded solids: Generally matter consists in three states i. This energy varies depending on the type of bonding. Water molecule in the form of ice, ammonia molecules. OR Weak and temporary vy dipole bonds between hydrogen are known as van der Waals bonding and they are nondirectoinal.

Metallic bond is non directional. Machida Okayama University, Japan 1.

Solids are usually strong and exhibit elastic character.

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